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References

Given its historical significance and  strategic location, it seems surprising that the Bloomingdale has never been the subject of a separate scholarly monograph.  That said, there are three excellent historical treatments dealing with its history which have informed this brief study.  Andrew Dolkart's Morningside Heights (1998) was my starting point, as it must be for any serious research on this neighborhood. Although its treatment is understandably just a few pages in length, it provides an excellent synthesis of the history of the asylum as a component of Morningside Heights, references to the most important sources, and an array of salient insights into the issues facing this institution.  The most detailed account of the Bloomingdale is included in William Russell's The New York Hospital; a History of the Psychiatric Service (1945), and has been the source for many of the details in my presentation here.  David Rosner's A Once Charitable Enterprise (1982) provides a close look at the key events of 1886-1889, but also offers a valuable perspective on the social and political role of this institution.

The sources specifically used in the preceding text are listed here, along with one or two other important book treatments that informed my research.  The newspaper literature on the Bloomingdale is vast, and while I looked at a great deal of it in the course of my research, only the articles specifically cited are listed below.

Castel, Robert. "Moral Treatment: Mental Therapy and Social Control in the Nineteenth Century."  In Cohen, Stanley and Scull, Andrew, eds. Social Control and the State. Oxford: Martin Robertson, 1983, p.248-266.
 
Chambers, Julius. "Among the Maniacs."  New-York Tribune. August 31, 1872, p. 1.
 
City Reform Club. Record of Assemblymen and Senators from the City of New York in the Legislature of... New York, <1886>-<1890>.
 
Columbia University. Officers and graduates of Columbia University, originally the College of the Province of New York known as King's College : general catalogue ... 1754 to 1916. New York: Columbia University, 1917.
 
”Commodore Meade, U.S.N., in Bloomingdale Asylum.” New York Tribune. December 6, 1863, p.2.
 
Dickens, Charles. American Notes : For General Circulation. 2 vols. London: Chapman and Hall, 1842.
 
"Discharge from the Bloomingdale Asylum on a Habeas Corpus.” New York Daily Times, July 27, 1857, p. 5.
 
Dolkart, Andrew. Morningside Heights : A History of Its Architecture & Development. New York: Columbia University Press, c1998.
 
Earle, Pliny. History, Description and Statistics of the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane. New York: Egbert, Hovey & King, 1848.
 
Eddy, Thomas.  Hints for Introducing an Improved Mode of Treating the Insane in the Asylum.  New York, 1815.
 
Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization; a History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. New York: Vintage Books, 1973.
 
Fuller, Margaret, ”St. Valentine’s Day — Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane, New York Daily Tribune, Feb. 22, 1845, p. 1.
 
Grob, Gerald N. “Earle, Pliny.” American National Biography Online, February 2000. http://www.anb.org/articles/12/12-00241.html.

"Meeting a Terrible Fate: Nine Persons Crushed and Burned in a Collision." New York Times Jan 14, 188, p. 1.

New York (State). Senate. "Report of the Committee on Taxation and Retrenchment of the Senate of the State of New York, in the Matter of the Memorial of the Morningside Park Association, in Reference to the Bloomingdale Asylum for the Insane," Documents of the Senate of the State of New York, One Hundred and Eleventh Session, 1888, v. 5, no. 61.  http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3257506?urlappend=%3Bseq=1169

———. "Supplemental Report of the Committee on Taxation and Retrenchment on
Investigation of the Bloomingdale Insane Asylum." Documents of the Senate of the State of New York, One Hundred and Eleventh Session, 1888, v. 5, no. 62. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3257506?urlappend=%3Bseq=1169

 New York Hospital, Society of the. Annual Report of the State of the New York Hospital and Bloomingdale Asylum.  New York, 1822-1894.  (Title varies.)
 
New York Hospital, Society of the. A Psychiatric Milestone; Bloomingdale Hospital Centenary, 1821-1921. New York: Privately printed by the Society of the New York Hospital, 1921.

Officers and graduates of Columbia University, originally the College of the Province of New York known as King's College : general catalogue. (New York, 1916)

 Ingle, H. Larry. “Eddy, Thomas.” American National Biography Online, February 2000. http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00200.html.
 
Irenaeus, “An Hour in an Insane Asylum,” New York Observer and Chronicle, May 24, 1845.
 
King, Moses. Kings Handbook of New York City. Boston, Mass, 1893.
 
———. Notable New Yorkers of 1896-1899; a Companion Volume to King’s Handbook of New York City. Boston, Mass: M. King, 1899.
 
Millikan, Frank Rives. “Nichols, Charles Henry.” American National Biography Online, February 2000. http://www.anb.org/articles/12/12-00241.html.
 
 "The New Wing of the Bloomingdale Asylum," Frank Leslie's  Illustrated Newspaper, April 3, 1880, p. 75-76. (Digital image from HathiTrust: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/pst.000020241421)
 
Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. London, England: Harvard University Press, 2014.
 
Rosner, David. A Once Charitable Enterprise : Hospitals and Health Care in Brooklyn and New York, 1885-1915. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
 
Russell, William Logie. The New York Hospital; a History of the Psychiatric Service, 1771-1936, by William Logie Russell. New York: Columbia university press, 1945.
 
Scull, Andrew. Social Order/mental Disorder : Anglo-American Psychiatry in Historical Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1989.
 
Tuke, Samuel. Description of the Retreat, an Institution near York, for Insane Persons of the Society of Friends. Containing an Account of Its Origin and Progress, the Modes of Treatment, and a Statement of Cases . Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1813.
 
”The Underhill Lunacy Case: a Brooklyn Sensation.” New York Times. December 30, 1864, p.8.
 
White, Norval. AIA Guide to New York City. New York: Crown Publ, c2000.

"Who "Seddon's Mouse's" Friends Are."  New York Times, April 15, 1884, p.5.